The female cycle and its phases

The female cycle and its phases

The female cycle is an impressive and complex biological process that prepares the body for a possible pregnancy. Although it lasts around 28 days on average, the cycle length can vary from woman to woman and be shorter or longer at different stages of life. A cycle length of 25-35 days is considered normal.

The four main phases of the female cycle

1. menstrual phase: The cycle begins with menstruation, during which the lining of the uterus is shed if fertilization has not taken place. This process usually takes around 3 to 7 days. The first day of the period is considered the first day of the cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase begins, in which the pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This stimulates the ovaries to develop follicles, which produce estradiol what at the same time promotes the formation of the uterine lining.

3. Ovulatory phase: Ovulation is triggered by an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH), when the follicle is of the right size. This is the most fertile phase of the cycle.

4. Luteal phase: After ovulation, the luteal phase begins, in which the corpus luteum develops from the empty follicle. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone, which prepares the lining of the uterus for a possible implantation of a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, the luteal phase ends after about 14 days with the drop in progesterone levels, which initiates menstruation.

How is cycle length calculated?

The number of days from the first day of your period to the first day of your next period.

What is the "normal" cycle length?

A normal cycle length is between 25-35 days. Variations can be influenced by various factors, such as stress and diet. Knowing your own cycle can help you better understand your fertility and determine the optimal time to conceive.

menstrual cycle

Written by
PD Dr. Dr. Kilian Vomstein
PD Dr. Dr. Kilian Vomstein

Mein beruflicher Schwerpunkt ist der Umgang mit unerfülltem Kinderwunsch und wiederholten Fehlgeburten, in dem ich umfassende klinische und wissenschaftliche Erfahrungen gesammelt habe. Ich strebe danach, für jedes Paar individuelle Lösungen zu finden.