Uterine anatomy

Uterine anatomy

The uterus plays a crucial role in the development of a pregnancy. Changes or abnormalities in their anatomy can become risk factors for miscarriages or unfulfilled desire to have children. Here you can find out more about this important topic.

The development of the uterus

Even in the womb, the uterus develops from two separate structures, the so-called Müller ducts. In the course of fetal development, these halves fuse to form a single, hollow organ space. Disturbances or incomplete fusions can lead to various abnormalities, such as the uterus septus, uterus bicornis or uterus unicornis. Deviations in anatomical structure may increase the risk of miscarriage or pregnancy complications.

Dynamics of the uterus over the course of life

The uterus is not a static organ; it undergoes changes over the course of a woman's life. Age, hormones, genetic factors, surgeries, and pregnancies can affect the structure. Studies have shown that abnormalities such as fibroids (muscle knots) or endometriosis can increase the risk of pregnancy problems. An accurate medical evaluation, often through imaging techniques such as ultrasound (transvaginal ultrasonography) or hysteroscopy (hysteroscopy), is crucial to identify potential risk factors.

This picture shows a uterus with various anatomical abnormalities: The red muscle wall shows two bright muscle nodes - so-called fibroids. But you can also see an abnormality in the uterine cavity: A so-called polyp, a small growth of the lining of the uterus, which is usually benign!

What is hysteroscopy?

Hysteroscopy is an examination method in which a thin instrument is inserted into the uterus via the vagina and cervix to look at the inside. There are two main types of hysteroscopy: so-called office or mini hysteroscopy, a simpler procedure that is often performed directly in the doctor's office, and hysteroscopy under general anesthesia, which is used in hospitals for more complex cases or surgical procedures.


The uterus is a fascinating and dynamic organ whose anatomy plays an important role in pregnancy. Careful medical evaluation and advice are therefore of crucial importance for women with an unfulfilled desire to have children.

Written by
PD Dr. Dr. Kilian Vomstein
PD Dr. Dr. Kilian Vomstein

Mein beruflicher Schwerpunkt ist der Umgang mit unerfülltem Kinderwunsch und wiederholten Fehlgeburten, in dem ich umfassende klinische und wissenschaftliche Erfahrungen gesammelt habe. Ich strebe danach, für jedes Paar individuelle Lösungen zu finden.